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轴承的安装和维护

网址:encodextelesystems.com  2019-12-17  作者:admin    阅读:

从使用角度,保证轴承能可靠地工作要注意以下几点:
From the point of view of use, it is necessary to pay attention to the following points to ensure that the bearing can work reliably.
1、改善润滑质量,控制机油的压力、温度及流量,加强机油滤清。
1, improve the lubrication quality, control the oil pressure, temperature and flow rate, and enhance the oil filtration.
2、采用符合规定的燃油及润滑油。
2, adopt the fuel and lubricating oil that meet the requirements.
3、控制柴油发电机组的温度状态,在过冷过热的情况下工作都是不利的。冷天,柴油机起动前应先预热,并用手转动曲轴使机油进入磨擦表面。
3, controlling the temperature state of diesel generating set is unfavorable to work under the condition of supercooling and overheating. In cold weather, the diesel engine should be pre heated before starting and rotate the crankshaft with the hand to make the oil enter the friction surface.
4、轴承及轴颈表面质量和几何形状应严格得到保证。
4, bearing and neck surface quality and geometry should be strictly guaranteed.
5、轴承间隙要适当,发电机组过大产生冲击,过小则润滑不良,可能烧瓦。
5, bearing clearance should be appropriate, generating units too large to produce impact, too small lubrication, may burn tiles.
如何保证轴承可靠工作
How to ensure reliable operation of bearings
一般说来从使用角度讲要注意以下几点:
Generally speaking, from the point of view of usage, we should pay attention to the following points:
1.轴承间隙要适当,过大产生冲击,过小则润滑不良,可能烧瓦;
1. bearing clearance should be appropriate, excessive impact, too small lubrication, may burn tiles.
2.轴承及轴颈表面质量和几何形状应严格得到保证;
2. the surface quality and geometry of bearing and journal should be strictly guaranteed.
3.改善润滑质量,控制机油的压力、温度及流量,加强机油滤清;
3. improve lubrication quality, control oil pressure, temperature and flow rate, and enhance oil filtration.
4.采用符合规定的燃油及润滑油。
4. adopt the fuel and lubricating oil that meet the requirements.
为使轴承充分发挥并长期保持其应有的性能,必须切实做好定期维护保养(定期检查)。通过适当的定期检查,做到早期发现故障,防止事故于未然,对提高生产率和经济性十分重要。
In order to give full play to the bearing and maintain its proper performance for a long time, it is necessary to do a good job of regular maintenance (regular inspection). It is very important to improve productivity and economy to detect faults early and prevent accidents in the future through proper periodic inspection.
安装
install
轴承的安装是否正确,影响着精度、寿命、性能。因此,设计及组装部门对于轴承的安装要充分研究。希望要按照作业标准进行安装。作业标准的项目通常如下:
Whether the bearing is installed correctly affects the accuracy, life and performance. Therefore, the design and assembly department should fully study the bearing installation. It is hoped that installation will be carried out according to the operation standard. The operation standard items are usually as follows:
(1)清洗轴承及轴承关连部件
(1) cleaning bearing and bearing related parts
(2)检查关连部件的尺寸及精加工情况
(2) check the dimensions and finish machining of related parts.
(3)安装
(3) installation
(4)安装好轴承后的检查
(4) inspection after installation of bearings.
(5)供给润滑剂
(5) supply lubricants
希望在即将安装前,方才打开轴承包装。一般润滑脂润滑,不清洗,直接填充润滑脂。润滑油润滑,普通也不必清洗,但是,仪器用或高速用轴承等,要用洁净的油洗净,除去涂在轴承上的防锈剂。除去了防锈剂的轴承,易生锈,所以不能放置不顾。再者,已封入润滑脂的轴承,不清洗直接使用。
It is hoped that the bearing packing will be opened before the installation is ready. General grease is lubricated, not cleaned, directly filled with grease. Lubricant lubrication, ordinary also need not be cleaned, but, instruments or high-speed bearings, to use clean oil to clean, remove the anti-rust coating on the bearing. The rust removed from the rust inhibitor is easy to rust, so it can not be ignored. Moreover, bearings bearing grease are not cleaned and used directly.
轴承的安装方法,因轴承结构、配合、条件而异,一般,由于多为轴旋转,所以内圈需要过盈配合。圆柱孔轴承,多用压力机压入,或多用热装方法。锥孔的场合,直接安装在锥度轴上,或用套筒安装。
Bearing installation methods, due to bearing structure, fit, conditions vary, generally, because most of the shaft rotation, so the inner ring needs interference fit. Cylindrical bore bearings are usually pressed into or pressed by a press. The cone hole is directly mounted on the taper shaft or installed with sleeve.
安装到外壳时,一般游隙配合多,外圈有过盈量,通常用压力机压入,或也有冷却后安装的冷缩配合方法。用干冰作冷却剂,冷缩配合安装的场合,空气中的水分会凝结在轴承的表面。所以,需要适当的防锈措施。
Installation to the shell, general clearance with more, the outer ring has interference, usually press in, or there are cooling installation after the cold shrinkage fit method. When dry ice is used as coolant and cold shrinkage matches installation, moisture in the air will condense on the surface of the bearing. Therefore, appropriate anti rust measures are needed.
维护保养
Maintenance
拆卸
Disassemble
轴承的拆卸是定期维修,轴承更换时进行。拆卸后,如果继续使用,或还需要检查轴承之状态时,其拆卸也要与安装时同样仔细进行。注意不损伤轴承各零件,特别是过盈配合轴承的拆卸,操作难度大。
The demolition of bearings is regular maintenance, bearing replacement. After disassembly, if continue to use, or also need to check the status of the bearing, its disassembly and installation should also be as careful. Attention should not be given to the damage of all parts of the bearing, especially the removal of interference fit bearing.
根据需要设计制作拆卸工具也十分重要。在拆卸时,根据图纸研究拆卸方法、顺序、调查轴承的配合条件,以求得拆卸作业的万无一失。
It is also important to design and manufacture dismantling tools as required. In disassembly, according to the drawings to study the disassembly method, sequence, investigation of the bearing conditions, in order to obtain the disassembly operation is safe.
外圈的拆卸过盈配合的外圈,事先在外壳的圆周上设置几处外圈挤压螺杆用螺丝,一面均等地拧紧螺杆,一边拆卸。这些螺杆孔平常盖上盲塞,圆锥滚子轴承等的分离型轴承,在外壳挡住肩上设置出几处切口,使用垫块,用压力机拆卸,或轻轻敲打着拆卸。
The outer ring with interference fit is disassembled. Several extrusion screw screws for outer ring are arranged on the circumference of the outer shell beforehand. The screw is tightened equally on one side and disassembled at the other. These screw holes are usually covered with blind plugs, tapered roller bearings, and other separated bearings. Several notches are arranged on the shoulder of the housing block. Pads are used to remove the holes with a press, or tapped lightly to remove them.
内圈的拆卸,可以用压力机拔出最简单。此时,要注意让内圈承受其拔力。再者,所示的拔拉卡具也多为使用,无论那种卡具,其都必须牢牢地卡在内圈侧面。为此,需要考虑轴挡肩的尺寸,或研究在挡肩处加工上沟,以便使用拉拔卡具。
The removal of the inner ring can be easily drawn out by a press. At this point, we should pay attention to the inner ring bearing its pulling force. Furthermore, the pull-out clamps shown are mostly used, and they must be firmly stuck on the side of the inner ring, regardless of the type of clamp. For this reason, it is necessary to consider the size of the shaft shoulder, or to study the processing of the upper groove at the shoulder, so as to use the drawing clamp.
大型轴承的内圈拆卸采用油压法。通过设置在轴承的油孔加以油压,以使易于拉拔。宽度大的轴承则油压法与拉拔卡具并用,进行拆卸作业。
The inner ring of large bearing is disassembled by oil pressure method. By setting the oil hole in the bearing to oil pressure, it is easy to draw. The bearing with wide width is used for oil pressure method and drawing fixture.
圆柱滚子轴承的内圈拆卸可以利用感应加热法。在短时间内加热局部,使内圈膨胀后拉拔的方法。需要安装大批这类轴承内圈的场合,也使用感应加热法。
The inner ring of cylindrical roller bearings can be removed by induction heating. The method of heating local parts in a short time and expanding the inner ring. The induction heating method is also used to install large numbers of such bearing rings.
清洗
Clean
将轴承拆下检查时,先用摄影等方法做好外观记录。另外,要确认剩余润滑剂的量并对润滑剂采样,然后再清洗轴承。
When the bearing is removed for inspection, the photographic record is used first. In addition, confirm the amount of remaining lubricant and sample the lubricant, then clean the bearing.
a、轴承的清洗分粗洗和精洗进行,并可在使用的容器底部放上金属网架。
A, bearing cleaning, coarse washing and fine washing, and metal grid can be placed at the bottom of the container.
b、粗洗时,在油中用刷子等清除润滑脂或粘着物。此时若在油中转动轴承,注意会因异物等损伤滚动面。
When B or rough washing, remove grease or adhesive with brush in oil. At this point, if the bearing is rotated in the oil, it is noted that the rolling surface will be damaged due to foreign bodies and so on.
c、精洗时,在油中慢慢转动轴承,须仔细地进行。
C, fine wash, slowly rotating bearings in oil, must be carefully carried out.
通常使用的清洗剂为中性不含水柴油或煤油,根据需要有时也使用温性碱液等。不论用哪种清洗剂,都要经常过滤保持清洁。
Normally used cleaning agent is neutral water-free diesel oil or kerosene, according to the needs of sometimes also use warm lye. No matter which detergent is used, it must be filtered regularly to keep it clean.
清洗后,立即在轴承上涂布防锈油或防锈脂。
After cleaning, apply rust preventive oil or antirust grease immediately on the bearing.

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